The exact number of members of the FLDS Church is unknown due to the relatively closed nature of the organization; however, its population has been estimated at between 6,000 to 10,000 in the twin communities of Colorado City, Arizona and Hildale, Utah.
The historic location of the church was in the twin communities of Colorado City, Arizona and Hildale, Utah. The church also has a long-standing colony in Bountiful, British Columbia.
Since the purchase of land now called the Yearning for Zion Ranch 6 miles (9.7 km) northeast of Eldorado, Texas, there appears to be a shift in the headquarters of the church, along with a large exodus of the “most faithful” church members. Other newer church settlements are 15 miles (24 km) southwest of Pringle, South Dakota and 6 miles (9.7 km) north of Mancos, Colorado.
Members of the FLDS Church have owned machine shops that have sold airplane components to the United States government. From 1998 to 2007, the receipts of these airplane components totaled more than .7 million.
See also: Mormon fundamentalism
The residents in the area of Hildale, Utah, and Colorado City, Arizona, have a long history of practicing plural marriage, dating to the mid-19th century. Brigham Young, then President of the LDS Church, once visited the area stating, “This will someday be the head and not the tail of the church.” The twin cities were once known as Short Creek, officially founded in 1913 as a ranching community.
The FLDS traces its claim to spiritual authority to accounts, starting with a statement published in 1912 by Lorin C. Woolley, of a purported 1886 divine revelation to thenDS Church President John Taylor. They see this 1886 revelation as precluding validity of the 1890 Manifesto against new plural marriages by church members, issued by Wilford Woodruff, whom the LDS Church recognizes as Taylor’s successor. After the formal abandonment of plural marriage by the LDS Church, many members around Short Creek and elsewhere continued, and even solemnized, plural marriages. In 1904, the LDS Church issued the Second Manifesto and eventually excommunicated those who continued to solemnize or enter into new plural marriages.
Short Creek soon became a gathering place for polygamist members of the LDS Church. In 1935, the LDS Church excommunicated the Mormon residents of Short Creek who refused to sign an oath renouncing polygamy. Following this event, John Y. Barlow began to lead a group of Mormon fundamentalists who were dedicated to preserving the practice of plural marriage. The location on the Utahrizona border was thought to be ideal for the group because it allowed them to avoid state raids by moving across the state line.
Some of the locally prominent men in Short Creek, after being excommunicated by the LDS Church, later became leaders of the Mormon fundamentalist movement, including Lorin C. Woolley, J. Leslie Broadbent, John Y. Barlow, Charles Zitting, Joseph White Musser, LeGrand Wooley, and Louis A. Kelsch. In 1932, these leaders created the organization known as the Council of Friends, a group of seven high priests that was said to be the governing priesthood body on Earth. The Council of Friends became the governing ecclesiastical body over the Mormon fundamentalists at Short Creek.
The early years of the movement were contentious and saw many differing interpretations and opinions among leaders as to how plural marriage should be practiced. These contentions eventually led to the subsequent schisms that created the multiple Mormon fundamentalist organizations that now exist, including the FLDS Church, the Apostolic United Brethren, and the Latter-day Church of Christ or Kingston group. It is commonly believed by all of these sects that the early leaders of the fundamentalist movement received revelations from God commanding that plural marriage should not cease.
FLDS splinter groups
In 1984, a schism formed within the FLDS Church just before the death of Leroy S. Johnson. A small group of FLDS took issue with the “one-man rule” doctrine that altered the leadership structure of the church and that was implemented fully when Rulon Jeffs assumed his position as sole leader of the organization. These followers took up residence just south of Colorado City, in Centennial Park, Arizona, calling themselves “The Work of Jesus Christ,” or “The Work” for short.
Also in 2002, after Warren Jeffs assumed leadership, Winston Blackmore, who had been serving in Canada as the Bishop of Bountiful for the FLDS Church, was excommunicated by Jeffs in an apparent power struggle. This led to a split within the community in Bountiful, British Columbia, with an estimated 700 FLDS members leaving the church to follow Blackmore.
The FLDS Church has been led by a succession of prophets, who believe themselves to have been called by God to lead. The first leader of the FLDS Church was John Y. Barlow, who led the community of Short Creek until his death on December 29, 1949. He was succeeded by Joseph White Musser, who was the church’s leader during a government crackdown on polygamy known as the Short Creek raid, in 1953, in which all the FLDS Church members of Short Creek were arrested, including 236 children.
Musser led the community until a contentious appointment of Rulon Allred to a high position of authority in 1951 angered some members of the Short Creek community. Musser had appointed Allred to be his successor, but Allred was not accepted as his successor by the Short Creek community. This led to a schism, with many followers breaking off and joining Allred; this offshoot became known as the Apostolic United Brethren. The core group in the Short Creek area instead followed Charles Zitting as its leader.
Zitting died in 1954 and Leroy S. Johnson was chosen to lead the church in Short Creek. Johnson led the FLDS Church until his death in 1986. He was succeeded by Rulon Jeffs, who assumed the position of prophet, a title his predecessor refused to use. In Jeffs’ later years, his poor health led to his son Warren serving as leader of the church in his stead, and upon Rulon’s death in September 2002, Warren Jeffs became leader of the FLDS Church. However, immediately after the state of Utah convicted him of being an accomplice to rape, it was widely reported in the press that Warren Jeffs resigned his leadership of the FLDS Church, though the statement made by his attorneys only addresses Jeffs’ resignation from his fiduciary post as “President of the Corporation of the President of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Inc.”
Since no public statements have been made by officials of the church indicating a successor to Jeffs, it is not known who may be leading the FLDS Church, though it is quite probable that Warren Jeffs remains at the church’s helm.
Leroy S. Johnson (died aged 98), 19541986
Rulon T. Jeffs (died aged 93), 19862002
Warren S. Jeffs (living), 2002resent? (jailed in 2007)
William E. Jessop, 20072010 (suspected leader)
Merril Jessop, 20072010 (de-facto leader)
Wendell L. Nielsen, 2010resent (President of the church’s corporate entity)
Legal trouble and leadership struggles
The home of former FLDS leader Warren Jeffs in Colorado City
In 2003, the church received increased attention from the state of Utah when police officer Rodney Holm, a member of the church, was convicted of unlawful sexual conduct with a 16- or 17-year-old and one count of bigamy for his marriage to and impregnation of plural wife Ruth Stubbs. The conviction was the first legal action against a member of the FLDS Church since the Short Creek raid.
In November 2003, church member David Allred purchased “as a hunting retreat” the 1,371-acre (5.55 km2) Isaacs Ranch 4 miles (6.4 km) northeast of Eldorado, Texas, on Schleicher County Road 300 and sent 30 to 40 construction workers from Colorado Cityildale to begin work on the property. Improvements soon included three 3-story houses, each 8,000 to 10,000 square feet (930 m2), a concrete plant, and a plowed field. After seeing high-profile FLDS Church critic Flora Jessop on the ABC television program Primetime Live on March 4, 2004, concerned Eldorado residents contacted Jessop. She investigated, and on March 25, 2004, Jessop held a press conference in Eldorado confirming that the new neighbors were FLDS Church adherents. On May 18, 2004, Schleicher County Sheriff David Doran and his Chief Deputy visited Colorado City, and the FLDS Church officially acknowledged that the Schleicher County property would be a new base for the church. It has been reported in the media that the church has built a temple at the YFZ Ranch, which is supported by evidence, including aerial photographs of a large stone structure (approximately 88 feet (27 m) wide) in a state of relative completion. A local newspaper, the Eldorado Success, reported that the temple foundation was dedicated January 1, 2005 by Warren Jeffs.
On January 10, 2004, Dan Barlow (the mayor of Colorado City) and about 20 other men were excommunicated from the church and stripped of their wives and children (who would be reassigned to other men), and the right to live in the town. The same day two teenage girls reportedly fled the towns with the aid of activist Flora Jessop, who advocates plural wives’ escape from polygamy. The two girls, Fawn Broadbent and Fawn Holm, soon found themselves in a highly publicized dispute over their freedom and custody. After the allegations against their parents were proven false, Flora helped them flee state custody together on February 15, and they ended up in Salt Lake City at Fawn Holm’s brother Carl’s house.
In October 2004, Flora Jessop reported that David Allred purchased a 60-acre parcel of land near Mancos, Colorado, (midway between Cortez and Durango) about the same time he bought the Schleicher County property. Allred told authorities the parcel is to be used as a hunting retreat.
In July 2005, eight men of the church were indicted for sexual contact with minors. All of them turned themselves in to police in Kingman, Arizona, within days.
On July 29, 2005, Brent Jeffs filed suit accusing three of his uncles, including Warren Jeffs, of sexually assaulting him when he was a child. The suit also named the FLDS Church as a defendant. On August 10, former FLDS Church member Shem Fischer, Dan Fischer’s brother, added the church and Warren Jeffs as defendants to a 2002 lawsuit claiming he was illegally fired because he no longer adhered to the faith. Fischer, who was a salesman for a wooden cabinetry business in Hildale, claimed church officials interfered with his relationship with his employer and blacklisted him. The claim against the company was thrown out because he was not fired from his job, but quit instead.
In July 2005, six young adult lost boys who claimed they were cast out of their homes on the Utahrizona border to reduce competition for wives, filed suit against the FLDS Church. “The [boys] have been excommunicated pursuant to that policy and practice and have been cut off from family, friends, benefits, business and employment relationships, and purportedly condemned to eternal damnation,” their suit says. “They have become ‘lost boys’ in the world outside the FLDS community.”
On May 7, 2006, the FBI named Warren Jeffs to its Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list on charges of unlawful flight to avoid prosecution.
On August 28, 2006, Warren Jeffs was captured on Interstate 15 just north of Las Vegas, Nevada, after a routine traffic stop. Jeffs was tried in St. George, Utah, and a jury found him guilty of two counts of being an accomplice to rape.
The mayor of Colorado City, Terrill C. Johnson, was arrested on May 26, 2006, for eight fraudulent vehicle registration charges for registering his vehicles in a different state than he lived, which is a felony. He was booked in to Purgatory Correctional Facility in Hurricane, Utah, and was released after paying the ,000 bail in cash.
Short Creek raid
Main article: Short Creek raid
In the morning of July 26, 1953, 102 Arizona state police officers and National Guard soldiers invaded the fundamentalist Mormon community of Short Creek, Arizona. They arrested the entire populace, including 236 children. Of those 236 children, 150 were not allowed to return to their parents for more than two years. Other parents never regained custody of their children.
The Short Creek raid was the largest mass arrest of polygamists in American history, and it received a great deal of press coverage. After the raid, polygamists continued to live there; in 1960, Short Creek was renamed Colorado City.
April 2008 raid
Main article: YFZ Ranch
In April, 2008, Texas Child Protective Services, acting on what would later turn out to be a questionable tip from a person alleging systematic child abuse on the FLDS Church’s Texas compound, took custody of all 439 children under age 18 from the church’s YFZ Ranch, assisted by a large force of Texas Rangers who took control of the compound from April 3 to April 10. The raid generated intense press coverage in the U.S., especially in the Southwest, and also garnered international attention. On May 29, the Texas Supreme Court affirmed an appeals court ruling that Texas CPS was not justified in removing every child from the ranch and ordered the children to be returned to their parents.
The tip that prompted the raid is now believed to be a false report, instigated by Rozita Swinton. Rozita Swinton was later to face criminal charges based upon this false report and is believed to have filed similar false reports in the past.
The Colorado City/Hildale area has the world’s highest incidence of fumarase deficiency, an extremely rare genetic condition. Geneticists attribute this to the prevalence of cousin marriage between descendants of two of the town’s founders, Joseph Smith Jessop and John Yeates Barlow. It causes encephalopathy, severe mental retardation, unusual facial features, brain malformation, and epileptic seizures.
Plural marriage and placement marriage
See also: Exchange of women
The FLDS Church teaches the doctrine of plural marriage, which states that a man having multiple wives is ordained by God; the doctrine requires it in order for a man to receive the highest form of salvation. It is generally believed in the church that a man should have a minimum of three wives to fulfill this requirement. Connected with this doctrine is patriarchal doctrine, the belief that wives are required to be subordinate to their husbands.
The church currently practices placement marriage, whereby a young woman of marriageable age is assigned a husband by revelation from God to the leader of the church, who is regarded as a prophet. The prophet elects to take and give wives to and from men according to their worthiness. This is also called the law of placing.
In general, women do not cut their hair short or wear makeup, pants, or any skirt above the knees. Men wear plain clothing, usually a long-sleeved collared shirt and full-length pants. Men and women are forbidden to have any tattoos or body piercings. Women and girls usually wear monochromatic homemade long-sleeved “prairie dresses,” with hems between ankle and mid-calf, along with long stockings or trousers underneath, usually keeping their hair coiffed.
The land and houses occupied by the FLDS Church on the Utah/Arizona border are owned by the United Effort Plan (UEP), which was once a subsidiary organization of the church. The UEP also owns most of the property of the businesses that are controlled by FLDS Church members in that area. The church views this “United Order” as a means of living the traditional Latter Day Saint doctrine of the “Law of Consecration.” The Attorney General of Utah filed a lawsuit and seized the holdings of the UEP for the current residents of Colorado City and Hildale. The Attorney General is seeking to distribute the assets of the UEP to the FLDS Church members and ex-members who contributed to the UEP. In 2005, a court order froze the UEP pending a resolution of the lawsuit. At the time of the court order, the UEP was worth 0 million.
In 2000, the Colorado City Unified School District had more than 1200 students. When Jeffs ordered FLDS Church members to pull their children out of public schools, the number declined to around 250.
The FLDS Church is the sixth Latter Day Saint denomination to have built a temple.
Criticisms of the church
See also: Criticism of Mormonism and Criticism of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
A view of the FLDS ranch in Eldorado, Texas
At the time of his death, church leader Rulon Jeffs was confirmed to have married 22 women and fathered more than 60 children. Current estimates state that Warren Jeffs may have upwards of 60 wives. As the type of polygamy practiced is polygyny, critics of this lifestyle claim that its practice inevitably leads to bride shortages and likely to child marriages, incest, and child abuse.
Critics assert that members of the church are violating laws when they participate in polygamy. Critics claim that incest and sexual abuse of children are prevalent among church members.
Main article: Lost boys (polygamy)
It has been reported by former members that the FLDS Church has excommunicated more than 400 teenage boys for offenses such as dating or listening to rock music. Antagonistic former members claim that the real reason for these excommunications is that there are not enough women for each male to receive three or more wives. Six young adult men, ages 18 to 22, filed a conspiracy lawsuit against Jeffs and Sam Barlow, a former Mohave County deputy sheriff and close associate of Jeffs, for a “systematic excommunication” of young men to reduce competition for wives.
In its Spring 2005 “Intelligence Report,” the Southern Poverty Law Center named the FLDS Church to its “hate group” listing because of the church’s teachings on race, which include a fierce condemnation of interracial relationships. Warren Jeffs has said, “the black race is the people through which the devil has always been able to bring evil unto the earth.”
Former FLDS Church member Robert Richter reported to the Phoenix New Times that Warren Jeffs has repeatedly alluded to the 19th-century teaching of “blood atonement” in church sermons. Under the doctrine of blood atonement, certain serious sins, such as murder, can only be atoned for by the sinner’s death.
Caliente, Nevada: FLDS controversy
Escape (Carolyn Jessop and Laura Palmer book)
Former FLDS members
Lost boys (polygamy)
Under the Banner of Heaven
Polygamy: What Love Is This?
^ a b Krakauer, Jon. Under the Banner of Heaven. New York: Random House, 2003. ISBN 1400032806
^ The church has an estimated 8000 members Ben Winslow (2007-08-01). “37,000 ‘Fundamentalists’ Counted in and Near Utah”. Deseret Morning News (reprinted at rickross.com). http://www.rickross.com/reference/polygamy/polygamy684.html.
^ Principle Voices – Polygamist Census: LDS Splinter Groups Growing[dead link]
^ “The Primer” – Helping Victims of Domestic Violence and Child Abuse in Polygamous Communities. A joint report from the offices of the Attorney Generals of Arizona and Utah.
^ YFZ Ranch – A trip through time, The Eldorado Success
^ a b Nancy Perkins (2007-12-05). “Warren Jeffs resigns as leader of the FLDS Church”. Deseret Morning News. http://deseretnews.com/article/1,5143,695233512,00.html.
^ Brooke Adams (2007-11-30). “What Warren said to William”. Salt Lake Tribune. http://blogs.sltrib.com/plurallife/labels/William E. Jessop.htm.
^ Brooke Adams and Mark Havnes (2007-11-07). “Records say FLDS boss tried suicide”. Salt Lake Tribune (reprinted at WorldWide Religious News). http://www.wwrn.org/article.php?idd=26801&con=4&sec=26.
^ “Judge Orders FLDS Nursing Mothers to Foster Care With Infants”. CNN. 2008-04-23. http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0804/23/ng.01.html.
^ “Raid shines light on secretive polygamous sect”. CNN. 2008-04-08. http://edition.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/04/08/texas.ranch.ap/index.html.
^ Katherine Wojtecki (2008-04-15). “At the green gate, and then a glimpse of the polygamist life”. CNN. http://ac360.blogs.cnn.com/2008/04/15/at-the-green-gate-and-then-a-glimpse-of-the-polygamists-life/.
^ a b c d e Hilary Hylton, “A New Prophet for the Polygamists?”, Time, 2008-07-18.
^ Ben Winslow (2007-08-29). “Honors for ex-polygamous wife”. Deseret Morning News (reprinted at rickross.com). http://www.rickross.com/reference/polygamy/polygamy692.html.
^ Jennifer, Dobner (15 Feb 2010). “Polygamous church in Utah names new president”. Salt Lake City, UT: Associated Press. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20100215/ap_on_re_us/us_polygamist_leader_church. Retrieved 2 Feb 2010.
^ http://bycommonconsent.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/wendellnielsen.jpg Certificate
^ Winslow, Ben (27 March 2007). “A prophet no more? Jeffs called himself a ‘sinner’ in jailhouse conversation”. Deseret News. http://www.deseretnews.com/article/1,5143,660206525,00.html. Retrieved 17 February 2010.
^ Adams, Brooke (02 February 2010). “Polygamous sect has new president, but is Jeffs still FLDS prophet?”. The Salt Lake Tribune (Hildale, UT). http://www.sltrib.com/news/ci_14348960. Retrieved 17 February 2010.
^ “HAVE YOU SEEN THIS MAN? FBI Announces New Top Tenner, FBI Headline Archives”. Press release. 2006-05-06.. http://www.fbi.gov/page2/may06/jeffs050606.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-09.
^ “Jeffs guilty on both counts”. The Salt Lake Tribune. 2007-09-25. http://www.sltrib.com/ci_6995147. Retrieved 2007-09-25. [dead link]
^ “Leader of Utah Polygamist Sect Guilty in Rape Case”. The Associated Press. 2007-09-25. http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/us/AP-Polygamist-Leader.html. Retrieved 2007-09-25.
^ “Polygamist ‘prophet’ to serve at least 10 years in prison”. CNN. 2007-11-20. http://www.cnn.com/2007/US/law/11/20/jeffs.sentence/index.html.
^ “Polygyny in Bountiful, British Columbia, Canada”. Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance (ReligiousTolerance.org). http://www.religioustolerance.org/lds_poly1.htm.
^ “The Black Hills of South Dakota”. The HOPE Organization (childbrides.org). http://www.childbrides.org/dakota.html.
^ Jon Krakauer (2004-10-28). “New FLDS Compound Discovered in Colorado”. The Eldorado Success (reprinted at childbrides.org). http://www.childbrides.org/colorado_YFZ_exclusive_by_Krakauer.html.
^ Randi Kaye (2008-04-18). “Pentagon paid .7 million to firms of polygamy bosses”. CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2008/US/04/17/polygamy.pentagon/index.html.
^ Driggs, Ken. “‘This Will Someday Be the Head and Not the Tail of the Church’: A History of the Mormon Fundamentalists at Short Creek.” Journal of Church and State 43 (Winter 2001): 49-80. Baylor University.
^ J. Max Anderson. “The Polygamy Story: Fiction and Fact, (c) 1979”. SHIELDS (Scholarly & Historical Information Exchange for Latter-Day Saints). http://www.shields-research.org/Books/Polygamy_Story/LDS-Funde_Polygamy_Story.htm.
^ a b c John Dougherty (2003-03-13). “Polygamy’s Odyssey: A brief history of the Mormon tenet”. Phoenix New Times (reprinted at childbrides.org). http://www.childbrides.org/history_pnt_plig_odyssey.html.
^ “The Council of Friends”. mormonfundamentalism.com. http://www.mormonfundamentalism.com/ChartLinks/CouncilofFriends.htm.
^ a b Elaine Jarvik and Carrie Moore (2006-09-09). “Most polygamists trace lineage to 1929 group”. Deseret Morning News (reprinted at childbrides.org). http://www.childbrides.org/history_des_most_polygs_trace_lineage_to_1929_group.html.
^ Text by Brooke Adams, graphic by Todd Adams. “Polygamy leadership tree: Religious ideal grows, branches out” (PDF). The Salt Lake Tribune (reprinted by childbrides.org). http://childbrides.org/PolygamyLeaders.pdf.
^ “Centennial Park Action Committee”. The HOPE Organization (childbrides.org). http://www.childbrides.org/cpac.html.
^ “Centennial Park”. Life After Ministries, “Leading Mormons to the REAL Jesus” (lifeafter.org). http://www.lifeafter.org/centennialpark.asp.
^ Daphne Bramham (2006-05-12). “Winston Blackmore: Polygamist group leader expects to be charged soon”. The Vancouver Sun (reprinted at religionnewsblog.com). http://www.religionnewsblog.com/14626/winston-blackmore-polygamist-groups-leader-expects-to-be-charged-soon.
^ “Utah-based polygamous church led by jailed Warren Jeffs names new president”. fox13now (Salt Lake City, Utah: KSTU-TV). February 15, 2010. http://www.fox13now.com/news/sns-ap-us–polygamistleader-church,0,3470355.story. Retrieved 2010-02-15.
^ “FLDS church names new president”. KSL-TV. February 15, 2010. http://www.ksl.com/?nid=148&sid=9692182. Retrieved 2010-02-15.
^ “Jeffs dedicates FLDS temple site at YFZ Ranch”. The Eldorado Success. 2005-01-11. http://www.myeldorado.net/YFZ Pages/YFZ010605.html. Retrieved 2008-04-24.
^ “FLDS town’s mayor arrested”. The Salt Lake Tribune. 2006-05-27. http://www.sltrib.com/utah/ci_3871335. Retrieved 2007-04-24. [dead link]
^ Ken Driggs, “Who Shall Raise the Children? Vera Black and the Rights of Polygamous Utah Parents”, Utah Historical Quarterly 60:27 (1992).
^ http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,351969,00.html |Texas Polygamy Case: Based on a Hoax?
^ Dougherty, John (2005-12-29). “Forbidden Fruit”. Phoenix New Times. http://www.phoenixnewtimes.com/2005-12-29/news/forbidden-fruit/.
^ Hollenhorst, John (2006-02-08). “Birth defect is plaguing children in FLDS towns”. Deseret Morning News. http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,635182923,00.html.
^ “Doctor: Birth defects increase in inbred polygamy community”. Daily Herald. 2006-02-09. http://www.heraldextra.com/content/view/165069/.
^ Szep, Jason (2007-06-14). “Polygamist community faces rare genetic disorder”. Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/domesticNews/idUSN0727298120070614.
^ Bayley JP, Launonen V, Tomlinson IP (2008). “The FH mutation database: an online database of fumarate hydratase mutations involved in the MCUL (HLRCC) tumor syndrome and congenital fumarase deficiency”. BMC Med. Genet. 9 (1): 20. doi:10.1186/1471-2350-9-20. PMID 18366737. PMC 2322961. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2350/9/20.
^ Kerrigan JF, Aleck KA, Tarby TJ, Bird CR, Heidenreich RA (2000). “Fumaric aciduria: clinical and imaging features”. Ann. Neurol. 47 (5): 5838. doi:10.1002/1531-8249(200005)47:5<583::AID-ANA5>3.0.CO;2-Y. PMID 10805328.
^ “Three wives will guarantee you a place in paradise. The Taliban? No: welcome to the rebel Mormons”. The Daily Telegraph. 2003-10-19. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/1444578/Three-wives-will-guarantee-you-a-place-in-paradise.-The-Taliban-No-welcome-to-the-rebel-Mormons.html.
^ Bonnie Ricks. “Review: The Sixth of Seven Wives: Escape from Modern Day Polygamy”. The Institute for Religious Research (irr.org). http://www.irr.org/mit/sixth-of-seven-wives-br.html.
^ Rick Ross (2002-04-06). “The polygamist women of Colorado City”. rickross.com (self-published). http://www.rickross.com/reference/polygamy/polygamy10.html.
^ Shaffer, Mark (2005-06-23). “Polygamist sect loses grip on towns”. The Arizona Republic. http://www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/news/articles/0623polygamy23.html. Retrieved 2008-06-13.
^ “Bust-up in Bountiful: Timeline: History of Polygamy”. CBC News. 2008-04-12. http://www.cbc.ca/fifth/bustupinbountiful/timeline.html. Retrieved 2008-05-24.
^ Howard Fischer (2005-08-11). “State officials prepare to seize control of Colorado City school district”. Arizona Daily Star. http://www.azstarnet.com/sn/hourlyupdate/88285.php.
^ The other five are the Church of Christ, the LDS Church, the Community of Christ, the Apostolic United Brethren and the Righteous Branch of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
^ Wade Goodwyn, Howard Berkes and Amy Walters (2005-05-03). “Warren Jeffs and the FLDS”. NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4629320. Retrieved 2007-04-24.
^ Dnofrio, Eve (2005). “Child Brides, Inegalitarianism, and the Fundamentalist Polygamous Family in the United States”. International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family 19 (3): 373394. doi:10.1093/lawfam/ebi028. http://lawfam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/19/3/373.
^ Tracy, Kathleen (2001). The Secret Story of Polygamy. Sourcebooks. ISBN 1570717230.
^ Llewellyn, John R. (2006). Polygamy’s Rape of Rachael Strong: Protected Environment for Predators. Agreka Books. ISBN 0977707210.
^ Daniels, April (1993). Paperdolls: A True Story of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Mormon Neighborhoods. Recovery Publications. ISBN 0941405273.
^ Moore-Emmett, Andrea (2004). God’s Brothel: The Extortion of Sex for Salvation in Contemporary Mormon and Christian Fundamentalist Polygamy and the Stories of 18. Pince-Nez Press. ISBN 1930074131.
^ Ted McDonough (2004-09-23). “Lost Boys Found”. Salt Lake City Weekly (reprinted at rickross.com). http://www.rickross.com/reference/polygamy/polygamy250.html.
^ Nancy Perkins (2004-08-28). “FLDS Church, leaders sued by 6 ‘lost boys'”. Deseret Morning News (reprinted at findarticles.com). http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4188/is_20040828/ai_n11472255.
^ David Kelly (Los Angeles Times) (2005-06-19). “Polygamy’s ‘Lost Boys’ expelled from only life they knew”. The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2005/06/19/polygamys_lost_boys_expelled_from_only_life_they_knew/.
^ “Hate Groups Map: Utah”. Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLCenter.org). http://www.splcenter.org/intel/map/hate.jsp?S=UT&m=5.
^ “In His Own Words”. Intelligence Report (Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLCenter.org)). Spring 2005. http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intelreport/article.jsp?sid=342.
Bistline, Ben The Polygamists: A History of Colorado City, Arizona
Bradley, Martha Sontag Kidnapped from That Land: The Government Raids on the Short Creek Polygamists
Watson, Marianne T., “FLDS Placement Marriages”
Hales, Brian C. (2007). Modern Polygamy and Mormon Fundamentalism: The Generations After the Manifesto. Greg Kofford Books. ISBN 1-58958-035-4. .
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Krakauer, Jon: Under the Banner of Heaven: A Story of Violent Faith (July 15, 2003)
Carolyn Jessop and Laura Palmer. Escape. Broadway Books, October 16, 2007
Van Wagoner, Richard S. Mormon Polygamy: A History
“The Primer” – Helping Victims of Domestic Violence and Child Abuse in Polygamous Communities. A joint report from the offices of the Attorney Generals of Arizona and Utah.
Van Wagoner, Richard S. (1999). Mormon Polygamy: A History. UK: Prometheus Books. ISBN -10: 0941214796.
Wall, Elissa (2008). Stolen Innocence. New York: Harper Collins.
Main Street Church. Lifting the Veil of Polygamy (2007). A documentary film on the history and modern-day expressions of Mormon polygamy, including numerous testimonials.
Hoffman, Claire (June 2008). “Satan’s Accountant”. Cond Nast Portfolio Magazine. http://www.portfolio.com/news-markets/national-news/portfolio/2008/05/12/Profile-of-Polygamist-Sects-Lawyer. – An article about Bruce Wisan who was brought in to try and return property to the members of the FLDS group at Short Creek, and was met with great resistance. As featured on This American Life.
Wikinews has related news: 401 children from Texas sect compound taken into custody
Information about the FLDS Faith
“Audio clips reveal FLDS leader’s teachings”, The Eldorado Success (text and audio)
Damned to heaven : A critical documentary about Colorado City and FLDS Church
FLDS El Dorado, Texas Current and archived aerial photographs of the community and new temple
Banking on Heaven Has accusations against the FLDS
Lifting the Veil of Polygamy Includes interviews and testimonials of former FLDS members
and : Information on Utah Attorney General’s Lawsuit against the United Effort Plan
“Polygamy and Me: Seven months have passed since the polygamist raid in Eldorado, but for one mainstream Mormon, the effects linger,”
by the Dallas Observer’s Jesse Hyde
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Categories: Polygamy and the Latter Day Saint movement | Religious organizations established in 1932 | Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints | Mormon fundamentalist sects | Organizations based in Utah | Latter Day Saint movement in UtahHidden categories: All articles with dead external links | Articles with dead external links from June 2008 | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from February 2007 | Articles with unsourced statements from April 2008